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氯化铵

氯化铵用途

【用途一】
用于医药、干电池、织物印染、肥料、鞣革、电镀、洗涤剂等。
【用途二】
用作农作物肥料,适用于水稻、小麦、棉花、麻类、蔬菜等作物
【用途三】
用作分析试剂,也用于合纤粘度的检验
【用途四】
主要用于制造干电池和蓄电池、其他铵盐、电镀添加剂、金属焊接助熔剂,还用于鞣革、制蜡烛、胶粘剂等
【用途五】
在食品工业中用作酵母养料、面团调节剂。
【用途六】
酵母养料(主要用于啤酒酿造);面团调节剂。一般与碳酸氢钠混合后使用,用量约为碳酸氢钠的25%,或小麦粉量的10~20g//kg。主要用于面包、饼干等中。加工助剂(GB 2760-96)。
【用途七】
药用氯化铵用作祛痰药和利尿药
【用途八】
主要用于制造干电池和蓄电池。是制造其他铵盐的原料。用作染色助剂、电镀浴添加剂、金属焊接助熔剂。也用于镀锡和镀锌、鞣革、医药、制蜡烛、黏合剂、渗铬、精密铸造。
【用途九】
祛痰药。用作制粘合剂、洗涤剂、染色助剂,也用于电镀、电焊、鞣革、医药、照像等工业。
【用途十】
分离及沉淀离子,配制缓冲液,测定尿酸,冷冻剂。药用级用作祛痰药和辅助利尿药。用于祛痰、利尿、代谢性碱中毒及酸化尿液,用于制作蓄电池和荧光粉等。
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氯化铵名称

[ CAS 号 ]:
12125-02-9

[ 中文名 ]:
氯化铵

[ 英文名 ]:
Ammonium Chloride

[中文别名 ]:

[英文别名 ]:

氯化铵物理化学性质

[ 密度 ]:
1.52

[ 沸点 ]:
100 °C750 mm Hg

[ 熔点 ]:
340 °C (subl.)(lit.)

[ 分子式 ]:
ClH4N

[ 分子量 ]:
53.49150

[ 精确质量 ]:
53.00320

[ LogP ]:
1.17820

[ 外观性状 ]:
白色结晶固体

[ 蒸汽密度 ]:
1.9 (vs air)

[ 蒸汽压 ]:
1 mm Hg ( 160.4 °C)

[ 折射率 ]:
1.642

[ 储存条件 ]:
库房通风低温干燥

[ 稳定性 ]:
Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong bases.

[ 水溶解性 ]:
soluble

氯化铵MSDS

氯化铵毒性和生态

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
BP4550000
CHEMICAL NAME :
Ammonium chloride
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
12125-02-9
LAST UPDATED :
199806
DATA ITEMS CITED :
38
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
Cl-H4-N
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
53.50
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
Z& G

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - infant
DOSE/DURATION :
2 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Cardiac - other changes
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1650 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intramuscular
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
30 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
1300 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
485 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
358 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - convulsions or effect on seizure threshold Behavioral - coma Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - respiratory stimulation
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
600 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
1 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
200 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
78 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
72 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
220 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - domestic
DOSE/DURATION :
1500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Sense Organs and Special Senses (Eye) - mydriasis (pupillary dilation) Behavioral - tremor Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - respiratory stimulation
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
51660 mg/kg/10W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - other changes in urine composition Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - changes in calcium

MUTATION DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Cytogenetic analysis
TEST SYSTEM :
Rodent - hamster Fibroblast
REFERENCE :
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982- Volume(issue)/page/year: 22,623,1984 *** REVIEWS *** ACGIH TLV-STEL 20 mg/m3, fume DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 ACGIH TLV-TWA 10 mg/m3, fume DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 *** U.S. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS *** MSHA STANDARD-air:TWA 10 mg/m3 DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,12,1971 *** OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS *** OEL-ARAB Republic of Egypt:TWA 10 mg/m3 (fume) JAN 1993 OEL-AUSTRALIA:TWA 10 mg/m3;STEL 20 mg/m3 (fume) JAN 1993 OEL-BELGIUM:TWA 10 mg/m3;STEL 20 mg/m3 (fume) JAN 1993 OEL-DENMARK:TWA 10 mg/m3 (fume) JAN 1993 OEL-FRANCE:TWA 10 mg/m3 (fume) JAN 1993 OEL-THE NETHERLANDS:TWA 10 mg/m3 (fume) JAN 1993 OEL-RUSSIA:STEL 10 mg/m3 (fume) JAN 1993 OEL-SWITZERLAND:TWA 6 mg/m3 (fume) JAN 1993 OEL-UNITED KINGDOM:TWA 10 mg/m3;STEL 20 mg/m3 (fume) JAN 1993 OEL IN BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA check ACGIH TLV OEL IN NEW ZEALAND, SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LEVEL (REL) : NIOSH REL TO AMMONIUM CHLORIDE-air:10H TWA 10 mg/m3;STEL 20 mg/m3 REFERENCE : NIOSH* National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda. Volume(issue)/page/year: DHHS #92-100,1992 NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS - National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code - 05270 No. of Facilities: 29596 (estimated) No. of Industries: 223 No. of Occupations: 97 No. of Employees: 259567 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - 05270 No. of Facilities: 24833 (estimated) No. of Industries: 180 No. of Occupations: 131 No. of Employees: 415676 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 139037 (estimated)
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氯化铵安全信息

[ 符号 ]:

GHS07

[ 信号词 ]:
Warning

[ 危害声明 ]:
H302-H319

[ 警示性声明 ]:
P305 + P351 + P338

[ 个人防护装备 ]:
dust mask type N95 (US);Eyeshields;Gloves

[ 危害码 (欧洲) ]:
Xn:Harmful

[ 风险声明 (欧洲) ]:
R22;R36

[ 安全声明 (欧洲) ]:
S22-S36-S26

[ 危险品运输编码 ]:
UN 9085

[ WGK德国 ]:
1

[ RTECS号 ]:
BP4550000

[ 海关编码 ]:
2827101000

氯化铵合成路线

氯化铵上下游产品

氯化铵制备

【方法一】
复分解法将氯化铵母液加入反应器中加热至105℃,在搅拌下加入硫酸铵和食盐,于117℃进行复分解反应,生成氯化铵溶液和硫酸钠结晶,经过滤,分离除去硫酸钠,向滤液加入除砷剂和除重金属剂进行溶液净化、过滤,除去砷和重金属等杂质。将滤液送入冷却结晶器,冷却至32~35℃析出结晶,过滤,把结晶用氯化铵溶液进行淋洗合格后,经离心分离脱水,干燥,制得食用氯化铵成品。其
(NH4)2SO4+2NaCl→2NH4Cl+Na2SO4
重结晶法将工业级氯化铵加入已盛有蒸馏水的溶解器中,通过加热使其溶解,加入除砷剂和除重金属剂进行溶液净化,过滤,除去砷和重金属等杂质,把滤液冷却结晶、离心分离、干燥,制得食用氯化铵成品。
【方法二】

由联碱法过滤出的母液冷却结晶后,再加入细盐粉进行盐析而得。
由硫酸铵与氯化钙在水溶液中置换而得。
【方法三】
重结晶法将工业氯化铵加入已盛有蒸馏水的溶解器中,通过加热使其溶解,经除砷和除重金属净化处理后,过滤、冷却结晶、离心分离、干燥,制得药用氯化铵成品。
【方法四】
气液相合成法将氯化氢气体从湍流吸收塔的底部通入,与塔顶喷淋的循环母液接触,生成饱和氯化氢的氯化铵母液流入反应器,与通入氨气进行中和反应,生成氯化铵饱和溶液。送至冷却结晶器,经冷却至30~45℃,析出过饱和的氯化铵晶体。把结晶器上部氯化铵溶液送至风冷器冷却并循环至结晶器;下部晶浆经稠厚器增稠后再离心分离,制得氯化铵成品。其
HCl+NH3→NH4Cl
经离心分离的母液送至湍流吸收塔循环使用。
复分解法 首先将氯化铵母液加入反应器中加热至105℃后,加入硫酸铵和食盐,于117℃进行复分解反应,生成氯化铵溶液和硫酸钠结晶,经过滤分离除去硫酸钠,将氯化铵饱和溶液送至冷却结晶器,冷却至32~35℃析出结晶,过滤,把结晶分别用4种不同浓度(15~17°Bé,11~12°Bé,10°Bé,9.5~10°Bé)的氯化铵溶液进行淋洗,控制Fe<0.008%,SO42-<0.001%,淋洗至合格后,再用氯化铵溶液重新将结晶调成浆状,送入离心机分离脱水,再经热风干燥,制得工业氯化铵成品。其
2NaCl+(NH4)2SO4→2NH4Cl+Na2SO4
母液送至复分解反应器循环使用。过滤分离的硫酸钠用于生产元明粉。
重结晶法将粗品氯化铵加入溶解器,通人蒸汽溶解,经过滤,将滤液冷却结晶、离心分离、干燥,制得工业氯化铵成品。离心分离的母液返回溶解器使用。
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氯化铵海关

[ 海关编码 ]: 2827101000

氯化铵文献

Improved ethanol tolerance and ethanol production from glycerol in a streptomycin-resistant Klebsiella variicola mutant obtained by ribosome engineering.

Bioresour. Technol. 176 , 156-62, (2014)

To improve the ethanol tolerance of the Klebsiella variicola strain TB-83, we obtained the streptomycin-resistant, ethanol-tolerant mutant strain TB-83D by a ribosome engineering approach. Strain TB-8...

A synthetic O2 -tolerant butanol pathway exploiting native fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.

Biotechnol. Bioeng. 112(1) , 120-8, (2014)

Several synthetic metabolic pathways for butanol synthesis have been reported in Escherichia coli by modification of the native CoA-dependent pathway from selected Clostridium species. These pathways ...

Systematic comparison of the effects of alpha-synuclein mutations on its oligomerization and aggregation.

PLoS Genet. 10(11) , e1004741, (2014)

Aggregation of alpha-synuclein (ASYN) in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites is the typical pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies. Furthermore, mutations in the gene ...


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【氯化铵】化源网提供氯化铵CAS号12125-02-9,氯化铵MSDS及其说明、性质、英文名、生产厂家、作用/用途、分子量、密度、沸点、熔点、结构式等。CAS号查询氯化铵上化源网,专业又轻松。>>电脑版:氯化铵

标题:氯化铵_MSDS_用途_密度_氯化铵CAS号【12125-02-9】_化源网 地址:https://m.chemsrc.com/mip/cas/12125-02-9_895907.html