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氯霉素

氯霉素用途

Chloramphenicol是广谱抗菌剂。
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氯霉素作用

氯霉素类抗生素可作用于细菌核糖核蛋白体的50S亚基,而阻挠蛋白质的合成,属抑菌性广谱抗生素。
细菌细胞的70S核糖体是合成蛋白质的主要细胞成分,它包括50S和30S两个亚基。氯霉素通过可逆地与50S亚基结合,阻断转肽酰酶的作用,干扰带有氨基酸的胺基酰-tRNA终端与50S亚基结合,从而使新肽链的形成受阻,抑制蛋白质合成。由于氯霉素还可与人体线粒体的70S结合,因而也可抑制人体线粒体的蛋白合成,对人体产生毒性。因为氯霉素对70S核糖体的结合是可逆的,故被认为是抑菌性抗生素,但在高药物浓度时对某些细菌亦可产生杀菌作用,对流感杆菌甚至在较低浓度时即可产生杀菌作用。氯霉素对革兰阳性、阴性细菌均有抑制作用,且对后者的作用较强。其中对伤寒杆菌、流感杆菌、副流感杆菌和百日咳杆菌的作用比其他抗生素强,对立克次体感染如斑疹伤寒也有效,但对革兰阳性球菌的作用不及青霉素和四环素。抗菌作用机制是与核蛋白体50S亚基结合,抑制肽酰基转移酶,从而抑制蛋白质合成。各种细菌都能对氯霉素发生耐药性,其中以大肠杆菌、痢疾杆菌、变形杆菌等较为多见,伤寒杆菌及葡萄球菌较少见。细菌对氯霉素产生耐药性比较慢,可能是通过基因的逐步突变而产生的,但可自动消失。细菌也可以通过R因子的转移而获得耐药性,获得R因子的细菌能产生氯霉素乙酰转移酶(acetyltransferase)使氯霉素灭活。氯霉素自肠道上部吸收,一次口服1.0g后2小时左右血中药物浓度可达到峰值(约10~13mg/L)。血浆t1/2平均为2.5小时,6~8小时后仍然维持有效血药浓度。氯霉素广泛分布于各组织和体液中,脑脊液中的浓度较其他抗生素为高。氯霉素的溶解和吸收均与制剂的颗粒大小及晶型有关。肌内注射吸收较慢,血浓度较低,仅为口服同剂量的50%~70%,但维持时间较长。注射用氯霉素为琥珀酸钠盐,水中溶解度大,在组织内水解产生氯霉素。氯霉素在体内代谢大部分是与葡萄糖醛酸相结合,其原形药及代谢物迅速经尿排出,口服量5%~15%的有效原形药经肾小球过滤而排入尿中,并能达到有效抗菌浓度,可用于治疗泌尿系统感染。肾功能不良者使用时应减量。
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氯霉素名称

[ CAS 号 ]:
56-75-7

[ 中文名 ]:
氯霉素

[ 英文名 ]:
Chloramphenicol

[中文别名 ]:

[英文别名 ]:

氯霉素生物活性

氯霉素物理化学性质

[ 密度 ]:
1.6±0.1 g/cm3

[ 沸点 ]:
563.2±60.0 °C at 760 mmHg

[ 熔点 ]:
148-150 °C(lit.)

[ 分子式 ]:
C11H12Cl2N2O5

[ 分子量 ]:
323.129

[ 闪点 ]:
294.4±32.9 °C

[ 精确质量 ]:
322.012329

[ PSA ]:
115.38000

[ LogP ]:
1.62

[ 外观性状 ]:
白色至灰白色结晶粉末

[ 蒸汽压 ]:
0.0±1.6 mmHg at 25°C

[ 折射率 ]:
1.623

[ 储存条件 ]:
库房通风低温干燥

[ 水溶解性 ]:
2.5 g/L (25 º C)

氯霉素MSDS

氯霉素毒性和生态

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
AB6825000
CHEMICAL NAME :
Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-(beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-p- nitrophenethyl)-, D-(-)-threo-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
56-75-7
BEILSTEIN REFERENCE NO. :
2225532
LAST UPDATED :
199707
DATA ITEMS CITED :
96
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
C11-H12-Cl2-N2-O5
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
323.15
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
WNR DYQY1QMVYGG

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - infant
DOSE/DURATION :
440 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - somnolence (general depressed activity) Gastrointestinal - other changes Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - body temperature decrease
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - woman
DOSE/DURATION :
400 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - coma Vascular - shock Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - cyanosis
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Unreported
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - child
DOSE/DURATION :
250 mg/kg/10D
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - other changes Blood - hemorrhage Blood - changes in bone marrow (not otherwise specified)
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - infant
DOSE/DURATION :
30 mg/kg/3D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Cardiac - cardiac output Vascular - BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intramuscular
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - infant
DOSE/DURATION :
250 mg/kg/2D
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Vascular - change in plasma or blood volume
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Unreported
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - infant
DOSE/DURATION :
200 mg/kg/4D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - convulsions or effect on seizure threshold Blood - eosinophilia Skin and Appendages - dermatitis, allergic (after systemic exposure)
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
2500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1811 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
5 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Gastrointestinal - hypermotility, diarrhea
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
171 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
1500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
1100 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
400 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
110 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - somnolence (general depressed activity) Behavioral - ataxia Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - other changes
TYPE OF TEST :
LD - Lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
>300 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
150 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Vascular - BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - other changes
TYPE OF TEST :
LD - Lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intramuscular
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
>101 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
117 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
560 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
60 mg/kg/60D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
17416 mg/kg/4W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
33600 mg/kg/14D-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - other changes Liver - changes in liver weight Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
960 mg/kg/4D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Blood - changes in other cell count (unspecified) Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - dehydrogenases
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
2800 mg/kg/2W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - food intake (animal) Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - other changes Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
6400 mg/kg/3W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - food intake (animal) Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - proteinuria
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
2100 mg/kg/2W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - other changes Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - woman
DOSE/DURATION :
300 mg/kg/60W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria Blood - changes in bone marrow (not otherwise specified) Blood - leukemia
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
2500 mg/kg/5W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Blood - lymphoma, including Hodgkin's disease
TYPE OF TEST :
TD - Toxic dose (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - woman
DOSE/DURATION :
1680 mg/kg/6W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria Blood - aplastic anemia Blood - leukemia
TYPE OF TEST :
TD - Toxic dose (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - man
DOSE/DURATION :
434 mg/kg/W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria Blood - aplastic anemia Blood - leukemia
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
23 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 1-21 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - other effects to embryo Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - homeostasis
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
2500 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 9 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - Central Nervous System
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
2500 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 11 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetal death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
2 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 8 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetal death Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - body wall
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
250 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 3 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - other measures of fertility
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
DOSE :
2400 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 12-14 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
DOSE :
3500 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-10 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - litter size (e.g. # fetuses per litter; measured before birth) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetal death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
DOSE :
3500 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-10 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - eye/ear Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - urogenital system
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
DOSE :
2 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 10-14 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - other effects to embryo
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
5500 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 5-15 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
7 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-12 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - litter size (e.g. # fetuses per litter; measured before birth) Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - musculoskeletal system
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
6 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 8-10 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetal death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
175 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 15-21 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Newborn - behavioral
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Parenteral
DOSE :
2 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 12-14 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - Central Nervous System
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
4 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 8-11 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - litter size (e.g. # fetuses per litter; measured before birth) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetal death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
4 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-9 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - musculoskeletal system
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Parenteral
DOSE :
2700 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 11-19 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - abortion Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetal death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Parenteral
DOSE :
2700 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 2-10 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - female fertility index (e.g. # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)
TYPE OF TEST :
Cytogenetic analysis
TYPE OF TEST :
Cytogenetic analysis
TYPE OF TEST :
Cytogenetic analysis

MUTATION DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Sister chromatid exchange
TEST SYSTEM :
Mammal - cattle Lymphocyte
DOSE/DURATION :
5 mg/L
REFERENCE :
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964- Volume(issue)/page/year: 319,11,1993 *** REVIEWS *** IARC Cancer Review:Human Limited Evidence IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 10,85,1976 IARC Cancer Review:Human Limited Evidence IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 50,169,1990 IARC Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 10,85,1976 IARC Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 50,169,1990 IARC Cancer Review:Group 2A IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 50,169,1990 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW PLMJAP Pahlavi Medical Journal. (Shiraz, Iran) V.1-9, 1970-78. Volume(issue)/page/year: 6,160,1975 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW CLANA4 Clinical Anesthesia. (Philadelphia, PA 19103) V.1-11, 1963-76. Volume(issue)/page/year: 10(Pt 1),283,1973 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW PCNAA8 Pediatric Clinics of North America. (W.B. Saunders Co., W. Washington Sq., Philadelphia, PA 19105) V.1- 1954- Volume(issue)/page/year: 8,413,1961 *** OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS *** OEL-RUSSIA:STEL 1 mg/m3 JAN 1993 *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS - National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code - 84396 No. of Facilities: 165 (estimated) No. of Industries: 1 No. of Occupations: 6 No. of Employees: 11365 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - 84396 No. of Facilities: 2358 (estimated) No. of Industries: 3 No. of Occupations: 19 No. of Employees: 35571 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 23544 (estimated)
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氯霉素安全信息

[ 符号 ]:

GHS08

[ 信号词 ]:
Danger

[ 危害声明 ]:
H350

[ 警示性声明 ]:
P201-P280-P308 + P313

[ 个人防护装备 ]:
Eyeshields;full-face particle respirator type N100 (US);Gloves;respirator cartridge type N100 (US);type P1 (EN143) respirator filter;type P3 (EN 143) respirator cartridges

[ 危害码 (欧洲) ]:
T:Toxic

[ 风险声明 (欧洲) ]:
R45

[ 安全声明 (欧洲) ]:
S53-S45

[ 危险品运输编码 ]:
2811

[ WGK德国 ]:
3

[ RTECS号 ]:
AB6825000

[ 海关编码 ]:
2941400000

氯霉素合成路线

氯霉素上下游产品

氯霉素制备

世界各国对氯霉素的生产方法进行过大量的研究,归纳起来有:
(1)对硝基苯乙酮法;
(2)苯乙烯法;
(3)肉桂醇法;
(4)对硝基肉桂醇法;
(5)对硝基苯甲醛法。我国采用对硝基苯乙酮法,该法由乙苯经硝化、氧化、溴化、成盐、水解、乙酰化、加成、还原、分解、分拆、二氯乙酰化而得氯霉素。
 
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氯霉素文献

Disruption of an M. tuberculosis membrane protein causes a magnesium-dependent cell division defect and failure to persist in mice.

PLoS Pathog. 11(2) , e1004645, (2015)

The identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes necessary for persistence in vivo provides insight into bacterial biology as well as host defense strategies. We show that disruption of M. tuber...

Improved production of propionic acid in Propionibacterium jensenii via combinational overexpression of glycerol dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase from Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 81(7) , 2256-64, (2015)

Microbial production of propionic acid (PA), an important chemical building block used as a preservative and chemical intermediate, has gained increasing attention for its environmental friendliness o...

A vaccine formulation combining rhoptry proteins NcROP40 and NcROP2 improves pup survival in a pregnant mouse model of neosporosis.

Vet. Parasitol. 207(3-4) , 203-15, (2015)

Currently there are no effective vaccines for the control of bovine neosporosis. During the last years several subunit vaccines based on immunodominant antigens and other proteins involved in adhesion...


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【氯霉素】化源网提供氯霉素CAS号56-75-7,氯霉素MSDS及其说明、性质、英文名、生产厂家、作用/用途、分子量、密度、沸点、熔点、结构式等。CAS号查询氯霉素上化源网,专业又轻松。>>电脑版:氯霉素

标题:氯霉素_MSDS_作用_用途_氯霉素CAS号【56-75-7】_化源网 地址:https://m.chemsrc.com/mip/cas/56-75-7_947031.html